COVID-19 |

We'are hiring SROs!

CSR is a great place to work - interesting, collegial, and being an SRO is a great way to contribute broadly to science. Learn More

This recurring SEP reviews bioengineering developments in noninvasive medical technologies for therapeutic or diagnostic modulation of the nervous system. Also reviewed are applications to develop or optimize emerging imaging technologies as applied to brain structure and function in health and disease. This includes creating or developing multimodal imaging and computational approaches to medical imaging based on TMS, tDCS and Optogenetics. The topics covered by this SEP include neuromodulatory approaches and emerging imaging technologies as applied to the full range of (acquired and developmental) brain disorders and trauma, including spinal trauma. Applications reviewed in this SEP are not limited to human subjects and can include animal models.

Review Dates


  • Novel neuromodulation approaches for stabilizing cognition, memory, Alzheimer’s Disease, dementia, and major depression. These include various TMS modalities, Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), Optogenetics, and ultrasound, as well as by obtained EEG information.
  • Combination of Imaging modalities including MRI, fMRI, PET for brain mapping/pre-surgical brain mapping.
  • Creating or improving current computational and mathematical models based on TMS, tDCS as analytical tools for neuroimaging data analytics for improving functional brain atlas.
  • Gaining information on brain functions such as metabolism, oxygen consumption and hemodynamics following traumatic injuries such as stroke, brain, and spinal cord trauma, using a combination of approaches.
  • Neuro-ablation using infra-red modalities.

Shared Interests and Overlaps

EITN - Emerging Imaging Technologies in Neuroscience also reviews applications proposing development of MRI and fMRI techniques for the brain, however when used in combination with another modality such as EEG or ultrasound the applications are reviewed in ETTN-91 (NNIT).

VIBT – Brain Imaging, Bioengineering and Low Vision Technology reviews applications developing ultrasound OCT, photo acoustic and infrared (IR) brain imaging modalities as well as all imaging technologies for use in the eye.  Overlap between VIBT and ETTN-91 (NNIT) may occur with some imaging modalities such as MRI.  Applications developing imaging technologies for use on visual systems are reviewed in VIBT while combinations of imaging modalities for use in the nervous system are reviewed in ETTN-91 (NNIT).

BNVT - Bioengineering of Neuroscience and Vision Technologies reviews applications involving brain-invasive neuromodulation via implanted devices, typically using electrical and/or optical stimulation modalities.  Applications proposing ultrasound, magnetic, infrared, or other noninvasive modalities of stimulation are reviewed by ETTN-91 (NNIT); if the delivery of such stimuli involves implantation of probes or other devices into the brain then the application are reviewed in BNVT. 

IGIS- Image Guided Interventions and Surgery reviews applications aiming at developing imaging agents, immunomodulation and computational approaches, ultrasound, optical, PET/SPECT, X-ray, CT and MRI imaging technologies for better guiding interventions, including brain interventions and surgery. If approaches proposed can be construed as improved diagnostics, with interventions meant to happen at later time, applications are reviewed in ETTN-91 (NNIT). Developments for improving guidance of the interventions and surgery are reviewed in IGIS.

CDMA - ETTN-91 (NNIT) and Clinical Data Management and Analysis (CDMA) have shared interests in imaging and computational approaches to medical imaging. Applications that emphasize creating or developing multimodal imaging or computational approaches to medical imaging based on TMS, tDCS and optogenetics are reviewed in NNNT. Applications that emphasize the imaging from electronic health records and with clinical outcomes are reviewed in CDMA.